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Operating Risks

Our business and operations around the world are exposed to a number of risks and to extensive regulation, which include, inter alia:

  • the quality, safety, and efficacy of medical and pharmaceutical products, supplies, and therapies;
  • the operation of hospitals, laboratories, and manufacturing facilities;
  • the construction and management of health care facilities;
  • the rate of, and accurate reporting and billing for, government and third-party reimbursement;
  • compensation of medical directors and other financial arrangements with physicians and other referral sources.

If Fresenius fails to comply with laws or regulations, this may give rise to a number of legal consequences, including monetary and administrative penalties, increased compliance costs, complete or partial exclusion from governmental programs, or a complete or partial curtailment of our authorization to conduct business. Any of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

In the following, the main risks for the Fresenius Group are described:

Production, products, and services

Compliance with product and manufacturing regulations is ensured by our quality management systems in accordance with the internationally recognized quality standard ISO 9001, reflecting a large number of national and international regulations. Application is ensured by internal standards such as quality and work procedure manuals. Regular internal and external audits are carried out at the Group’s production sites, distribution companies, and dialysis clinics. These audits test compliance with regulations in all areas – from management and administration to production and clinical services and patient satisfaction. Our production facilities comply with the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) of the markets they supply. Our facilities are audited and approved by the FDA and other public authorities. If deficiencies are detected and complaints are filed, the Company is required to address these issues immediately, as during the inspections of our U.S. production facilities in Grand Island and Maricao or our production facility in Kalyani, India, for example.

Non-compliance with the requirements of these authorities in our production facilities or at our suppliers could lead to regulatory actions such as warnings, product recalls, production interruptions, monetary sanctions, or delay in new product approval. Any of these regulatory actions could adversely affect our ability to generate sales and result in significant expenses.

Potential risks, such as those arising from the start-up of a new production site or the introduction of new technologies, are countered through careful planning, regular analysis, and continual progress reviews. Production capacities at some of our manufacturing plants could be adversely affected by events such as technical failures, natural disasters, regulatory rulings, or supply disruptions, e. g., of raw materials.

We counter the risk of poor-quality purchased raw materials, semifinished products, and components mainly by requiring our suppliers to meet strict quality standards. Besides certification by external institutes and regular supplier audits, this includes an exhaustive evaluation of advance samples and regular quality controls. We only purchase high-quality products with proven safety and suitability from qualified suppliers that conform to our specifications and standards.

Performing medical treatments on patients in our hospitals, rehabilitation clinics, and dialysis clinics presents inherent risks. For example, disruptions to processes involve risks for patients and the clinic. In addition, there are operational risks, for example regarding hygiene and sterile conditions. We counteract these risks with strict operating procedures, continuous personnel training, and patient-oriented working procedures. Furthermore, through our quality management systems we are constantly striving to improve the standard of patient treatment.

Further risks arise from increasing pressure on our product prices. On the procurement side, we counter risks – which mainly involve possible price increases and the availability of raw materials and goods – by appropriately selecting and working together with our suppliers through long-term framework agreements in certain purchasing segments and by bundling volumes within the Group.

Under the Medicare bundled reimbursement system, payment for Erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA) is generally included in the bundled rate. An interruption of supply or material increases in the utilization or acquisition costs for ESAs could materially adversely affect sales and profitability.

Growing competition could materially adversely affect the future pricing and sale of our products and services. The introduction of new products and services or the development of new technologies by competitors could render one or more of our products and services less competitive or even obsolete, and thus have a significant negative impact on future sales, the prices of products, and our range of services. This includes the introduction of generic or patented drugs by competitors, which may have an impact on the sale and distribution of drugs by Fresenius Medical Care, because in some cases drugs have minimum annual royalty payments.

Generally, the health care markets are characterized by price pressure, competition, and efforts to contain costs. These could result in lower sales and adversely affect our business, our financial position, and our operational results.

We counter the risks associated with Fresenius Vamed’s project business through professional project management and control, and with a proven system tailored to each business activity for identifying, evaluating, and minimizing these risks. This system consists of organizational measures (such as standards for pricing-in risks already when preparing quotations, risk assessment before accepting orders, regular project controlling, and continual risk assessment updates), and financial measures, such as checking creditworthiness, prepayments, letters of credit, and secured credits.

Our operations are subject to strict governmental regulatory demands and controls. We must comply with these rules and regulations, which monitor the safety and effectiveness of our medical products and services. Therefore, it is of special importance to us that our compliance programs and guidelines are adhered to. Through compliance, we aim to meet our own expectations and those of our partners and to orient our business activities to generally accepted standards and local laws and regulations.

The Corporate Compliance department reports to the Chief Compliance Officer, who is the Management Board member for Legal Affairs, Compliance, and Human Resources, and is accountable for establishing and implementing guidelines and procedures. A compliance officer has been appointed in each business segment. He is supported by additional compliance officers appointed based on organizational and business structures. The Corporate Compliance department supports the compliance officers at the business segment, regional, and country levels.

These compliance programs and guidelines set binding rules of conduct for our employees. We believe that we have taken adequate measures to ensure that national and international rules are observed and complied with.

Government reimbursement payments

Fresenius is subject to comprehensive government regulation in nearly all countries. This is especially true in the United States and Germany. In addition, Fresenius must comply with general rules of law, which differ from country to country. There could be far-reaching legal repercussions should Fresenius fail to comply with these laws or regulations.

A large part of Group revenue derives from government reimbursement programs. In 2013, approximately 32% of Fresenius Medical Care’s sales were attributable to U.S. federal health care benefit programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid.

Effective January 1, 2011, Medicare implemented a new End-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system (“ESRD PPS”) that expanded the scope of the products and services covered by the bundled rate and resulted in lower reimbursement per treatment than under the reimbursement system in place until December 31, 2010. ESRD-related drugs with only an oral form are expected to be reimbursed under the ESRD PPS starting in January 2016, with an adjusted payment amount to be determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services to reflect the additional cost to dialysis facilities of providing these medications.

The ESRD PPS payment amount is subject to annual adjustment based on increases in the costs of a “market basket” of certain health care items and services less a productivity adjustment. The centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) increased ESRD PPS base rates by 2.8% for 2014.

The ESRD PPS’s quality incentive program (“QIP”) began affecting payments for dialysis services in 2012. Dialysis facilities that fail to achieve the established quality standards have payments for a particular year reduced by up to 2% based on a year’s performance. In the November 2011 final rule, CMS established the quality measures for the payment year 2013, which focus on anemia management and dialysis adequacy for the payment year 2013. For the 2014 payment year, CMS has adopted four additional measures to determine whether dialysis patients are receiving high-quality care. The new measures include (i) prevalence of catheter and A/V fistula use; (ii) reporting of infections to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; (iii) administration of patient satisfaction surveys; and (iv) monthly monitoring of phosphorus and calcium levels. For the years 2015 and 2016, additional quality measures will be established. A material failure by the Company to achieve the minimum client quality standards under the QIP could materially and adversely affect its business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (“American Taxpayer Relief Act”), which was enacted on January 3, 2013, directed CMS to reduce the ESRD PPS payment rate, effective January 1, 2014, to account for changes in the utilization of certain drugs and biologicals that are included in the ESRD PPS. On November 22, 2013, CMS issued the final rule regarding the 2014 ESRD PPS payment rate. CMS decided to split the settled reduction of the ESRD PPS payment rate (US$29.93 reduction) over a period between three and four years (2014 to 2017), whereat material deviations between the ESRD PPS payment rates for 2013 and 2014 are not expected.

The Company mitigated the impact of the ESRD PPS and the other legislative initiatives referenced above with two broad measures. First, it worked with medical directors and treating physicians to make clinical protocol changes used in treating patients consistent with the QIP and good clinical practices, and it negotiated pharmaceutical acquisition cost savings. In addition, the Company achieved greater efficiencies and better patient outcomes by introducing new initiatives to improve patient care upon initiation of dialysis, increase the percentage of patients using home therapies, and achieve additional cost reductions in its clinics.

On February 4, 2013, CMS announced plans to test a new Comprehensive End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Care Model and issued a solicitation for applications. As currently proposed, CMS will work with up to 15 health care provider groups, known as ESRD Seamless Care Organizations (“ESCOs”), to test a new system of payment and care delivery that seeks to deliver better health outcomes for ESRD patients while lowering CMS’s costs. ESCOs that achieve the program’s minimum quality thresholds and generate reductions in CMS’s cost of care above certain thresholds for the ESRD patients covered by the ESCO will receive a share of the cost savings. ESCOs that include dialysis chains with more than 200 facilities are required to share in the risk of cost increases and reimburse CMS a share of any such increases. Applications must be approved by CMS to participate in the program. In August 2013, FME submitted an application for an ESCO.

Changes in the law or the reimbursement method could affect the scope of payments for services as well as for insurance coverage and the product business. This could have a significant adverse impact on the assets and liabilities, financial position, and results of operations.

Research and development

The development of new products and therapies always carries the risk that the ultimate goal might not be achieved, or might take longer than planned. Regulatory approval of new products requires comprehensive, cost-intensive preclinical and clinical studies. Furthermore, there is a risk that regulatory authorities either do not grant, or delay, product approval. In addition, adverse effects of our products that may be discovered after regulatory approval or registration may lead to a partial or complete withdrawal from the market, due either to regulatory actions or our voluntary decision to stop marketing a product. The Fresenius Group spreads its risk widely by conducting development activities in various product segments. We also counteract risks from research and development projects by regularly analyzing and assessing development trends and examining the progress of research projects. We also strictly comply with the legal regulations for clinical and chemical-pharmaceutical research and development. With IV drugs, it is also crucial that new products are continually brought to the market in a timely manner. The product development process can be controlled on the basis of detailed project roadmaps and a tight focus on the achievement of specific milestones. If the defined targets are not achieved, countermeasures can be initiated.

Risks from the integration of acquisitions

The acquisition and integration of companies carries risks that can adversely affect assets and liabilities, our financial position, and results of operations of Fresenius. Following an acquisition, the acquired company’s structure must be integrated while clarifying legal questions and contractual obligations. Marketing, patient services, and logistics must also be unified. During the integration phase, key managers can leave the company and both the course of ongoing business processes and relationships with customers can be harmed. In addition, change-of-control clauses may be claimed. The integration process may prove to be more difficult and cost-intensive, or last longer than expected. Risks can arise from the operations of the newly acquired company that Fresenius regarded as insignificant or was unaware of. An acquisition may also prove to be less beneficial than initially expected. Future acquisitions may be a strain on the finances and management of our business. Moreover, as a consequence of an acquisition, Fresenius may become directly or indirectly liable toward third parties, or claims against third parties may turn out to be non-assertable.

We counter risks from acquisitions through detailed integration roadmaps and strict integration and project management, so that countermeasures can be initiated in good time if there are deviations from the expected development.

Personnel risks

The Company addresses potential shortages of qualified personnel externally by utilizing personnel marketing measures, and internally by offering comprehensive personnel development programs. We also seek to retain our employees by introducing life-work time accounts in various areas. Furthermore, employees are entitled to attractive fringe benefits and, in part, bonuses. By using target group-specific measures, Fresenius addresses the overall shortage of specialized hospital personnel. We thereby recruit qualified, dedicated, and specialized personnel, thus ensuring our high standard of treatment quality. At the same time, by supporting the training of young employees, we thereby seek their commitment to Fresenius. Risks in personnel marketing are not considered to be significant because of all these measures.

Financial risks

The international operations of the Fresenius Group expose us to a variety of currency risks. In addition, the financing of the business exposes us to certain interest rate risks. We use derivative financial instruments as part of our risk management to avoid possible negative impacts of these risks. However, we limit ourselves to non-exchange-traded, marketable instruments, used exclusively to hedge our operations and not for trading or speculative purposes. All transactions are conducted with banks that have a high rating.

The Fresenius Group’s foreign exchange risk management is based on a policy approved by the Management Board that defines the targets, organization, and handling of the risk management processes. In particular, the guidelines assign responsibilities for risk determination, the execution of hedging transactions, and the regular reporting of risk management. These responsibilities are coordinated with the management structures in the residual business processes of the Group. Decisions on the use of derivative financial instruments in interest rate management are taken in close consultation with the Management Board. Hedging transactions using derivatives are carried out by the Corporate Treasury department of the Fresenius Group – apart from a few exceptions in order to adhere to foreign currency regulations – and are subject to stringent internal controls. This policy ensures that the Management Board is fully informed of all significant risks and current hedging activities.

The Fresenius Group is protected, to a large extent, against currency and interest rate risks. As of December 31, 2013, approximately 61% of the Fresenius Group’s debt was protected against increases in interest rates either by fixed-rate financing arrangements or by interest rate hedges; 39%, or €4,935 million, was exposed to an interest rate risk. A sensitivity analysis shows that a rise of 0.5% in the reference rates relevant for Fresenius would have a less than 1.5% impact on Group net income. For the determination of the interest rate risk, the Senior Notes issued in January and February 2014 are included.

As a global company, Fresenius is widely exposed to translation effects due to foreign exchange rate fluctuations. The exchange rate of the U.S. dollar to the euro is of particular importance because of our extensive operations in the United States. Translation risks are not hedged. A sensitivity analysis shows that a one cent change in the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar to the euro would have an annualized effect of about €65 million on Group sales and about €3 million on Group net income.

As a globally active company, we have production facilities in all the main currency areas. In the service businesses, our revenue and cost base largely coincide. The Fresenius Group uses a Cash-Flow-at-Risk (CFaR) model in order to estimate and quantify such transaction risks from foreign currencies. The foreign currency cash flows that are reasonably expected to arise within the following twelve months, less any hedges, form the basis for the analysis of the currency risk. As of December 31, 2013, the Fresenius Group’s cash flow at risk was €56 million. Hence, with a probability of 95%, a potential loss in relation to the forecasted foreign exchange cash flows of the next twelve months will not be higher than €56 million. Further details on financial risks can be found in the Notes.

Financial risks that could arise from acquisitions, investments in property, plant and equipment, and in intangible assets are assessed through careful and in-depth reviews of the projects, sometimes assisted by external consultants. Goodwill and other intangible assets with an indefinite useful life carried in the Group’s consolidated balance sheet are tested for impairment each year. Further information can be found in the Notes.

By normally assessing the creditworthiness of new customers, we limit the risk of late payment and defaults by customers. We also conduct follow-up assessments and review credit lines on an ongoing basis. Receivables outstanding from existing customers are monitored, and the risk of defaults is assessed. This particularly applies to countries with budgetary problems. In 2013, we again worked on our receivables, taking certain measures such as factoring or selling through product distributors.

As a global corporation, Fresenius is subject to numerous tax codes and regulations. The Fresenius Group’s companies are subject to regular tax audits. Any changes in tax regulations or resulting from tax audits could lead to higher tax payments. Information on the status of the tax audits can be found in the Notes.

Fresenius’ debt was €12,804 million as of December 31, 2013. The debt could limit the ability to pay dividends, to arrange refinancing, to be in compliance with its credit covenants, or to implement corporate strategy. Other financing risks could arise for Fresenius in case of an ongoing general financial market crisis. We reduce these risks through a high proportion of mid- and long-term funding with a balanced maturity profile. Furthermore, our financing agreements contain covenants requiring us to comply with certain financial figures and additional financial measures. Should we not comply with the covenants, this could lead to an early redemption of the debt.

Additional information on conditions and maturities can be found in the Notes as well as in the Management Report.

Legal risks

Risks that arise from legal disputes are continually identified, analyzed, and communicated within the Company. Companies in the health care industry are regularly exposed to actions for breach of their duties of due care, product liability, breach of warranty obligations, patent infringements, treatment errors, and other claims. This can result in high claims for damages and substantial costs for legal defense, regardless of whether a claim for damages is actually justified. Legal disputes can also result in an inability to insure against risks of this kind at acceptable terms in future. Products from the health care industry can also be subject to recall actions. This could have a negative effect on the assets and liabilities, financial position, and results of operations of the Group.

Information regarding legal matters and an ongoing internal compliance review at Fresenius Medical Care can be found in the Notes.

The Fresenius Group is also involved in various legal issues resulting from business operations. Although it is not possible to predict the outcome of these disputes, none is expected to have a significant adverse impact on the assets and liabilities, financial position, and results of operations of the Group.

Other risks

Other risks, such as environmental risks and risks involving management and control systems, or our IT systems, were not considered to be significant. IT risks are countered through security measures, controls, and monitoring. In addition, we counter these risks with constant investment in hardware and software as well as by improving our system know-how. Potential risks are covered by a detailed contingency plan, which is continuously improved and tested. Redundant systems are maintained for all key systems, such as IT systems or communications infrastructure. A password system is in place to minimize organizational risks, such as manipulation and unauthorized access. In addition, there are Company guidelines regulating the granting of access authorization, and compliance with these rules is monitored. We also conduct operational and security-related audits.

Risks with effect on the 1-year forecast period

The following overview shows the significant risks that could lead to deviations from the expected business performance within the 1-year forecast period.

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Assessment of overall risk